Sunday, February 17, 2013

Was the Rise of Car Ownership Responsible for the Midcentury Homeownership Boom in the US?

It's common to hear from certain quarters that not only did the advent of mass motoring in the mid-20th century lead to a change in the types of homes Americans lived in, but that it brought about increased rates of homeownership as well.  This increase is typically presented as being one of the major benefits of mass automobile ownership.  Randal O'Toole, writing in 2006, makes the claim more boldly than most:
"Homeownership rates have increased by nearly 50 percent, from less than 48 percent in 1930 to nearly 69 percent today. This was almost entirely due to the increased mobility that automobiles offered to blue collar workers."
The point is often grudgingly conceded by sprawl opponents, or else goes unmentioned (The Geography of Nowhere, for instance, does not mention homeownership rates once in its 275 pages, nor does Suburban Nation). If the mobility provided by the automobile did lead to high rates of land consumption for residential uses, at least in doing so it brought down the cost of land accessible to job centers, allowing city workers to enjoy property ownership where once they had been in thrall to urban landlords, right?

The picture, looked at a bit more closely, isn't quite so clear.  The 1890 Census, the first census in which questions about ownership and renting were asked, showed a homeownership rate of 47.8% (homeownership had apparently been declining since at least 1870, however).  In spite of the arrival of the affordable automobile in 1908, the rate continued to decline through 1920. By 1930, following 20 years of explosive growth in household car ownership, it had only regained its 1890 heights of 47.8%.  The first great wave of car-buying, representing one-half of the total increase in household car ownership down to the present day, was accompanied by very little change in the homeownership rate (note that the electric streetcar boom, starting in the late 1880s, was similarly not accompanied by a rise in homeownership).


Based on Census data and car registration statistics.

Although car ownership dipped in the early Depression years, a resurgence after 1933 drove it to new highs by 1940.  In spite of unprecedented government intervention to spur the housing market in the 1930s, however, including the arrival of revolutionary forms of mortgage financing, homeownership declined to 43.6% in 1940.

The most curious piece of the puzzle, however, is the period from 1940-1945. During those years, the homeownership rate increased by around 10 percentage points, representing almost 50 percent of the entire increase from 1940 to 2012.  The timing of this increase is oddly overlooked in much of the economics literature on American homeownership trends (O'Toole himself tells the audience in a CATO presentation from last year, at the 15:22 mark, that the increase in homeownership occurred "after World War Two").

It goes without saying that these were years of exceptionally low car use: although the absolute number of cars did drop substantially, gas rationing reduced automobile mobility to levels not seen since the mid-1920s, if not earlier.  This seemingly inexplicable rapid rise has not received much direct attention in the literature, but one 2012 paper finds that one probable explanation was the wartime imposition of rent controls, which "stimulat[ed] the withdrawal of structures from the rental market for sale to owner-occupiers at uncontrolled prices."

The study also contains an implied suggestion that, counterintuitively, it may have been the very reduction in wartime use and availability of cars that helped spur the ownership increase. Although the study notes that "due to restrictions on the purchase of many goods, much of consumers' income had no outlet other than savings" -- savings which were put toward down payments on homes -- one of the primary savings must have come from reduced spending on new automobiles and associated goods and services.

Of course, homeownership did continue to rise after 1945, but at a slower rate.  Notably, the price of homes did not decline during this period, as might be predicted by the automobile-based theory, but instead after a brief postwar dip continued to climb through the mid-1950s, according to Case-Shiller data.  Prices did begin a very gradual decline in the late 1950s, but by then the rise in homeownership was slowing, and increases after 1960 (at which time the interstate system was less than a quarter complete) were very modest. In fact, as of early 2012, the US homeownership rate was estimated to be close to that of 1965.

Case-Shiller home price data, adapted from original NYT graphic.

Rather than being a benefit of cars, the postwar portion of the increase is generally attributed to a combination of 1) the increasing prevalence of FHA and VA mortgages, which by the early 1950s were approaching 50% of the mortgage market, 2) rising real incomes; and 3) demographic changes.

Although some studies have estimated that increasing car ownership was responsible for as much as 60% of the form of the suburban growth that occurred after 1945, this is not to be confused with homeownership. After all, countries with large shares of multifamily housing, such as Spain and Italy, may have very high homeownership rates (78% for both), while Germany and Denmark, where densities are lower and single-family detached housing is more common, have very low rates (42% and 51%).  These differences appear to be due to government policy toward housing rather than to transportation mode (Spain and Denmark, for instance, have a nearly identical modal split). 

Now, I do think O'Toole ought to agree with at least some of this: he admits in his talk that varying homeownership rates from country to country are due to government policy (at 4:16), and has lately criticized smart growth policies for inflating prices (a topic I plan to get to in an upcoming post). If one's concern is not actually homeownership per se, but rather living in detached single-family residences on large lots (a favorite theme of Joel Kotkin), or perhaps if one believes that ownership of a single-family detached home is the only true form of ownership, then the car does take on greater significance. 

99 comments:

  1. Well, that was unexpected...

    I had a long comment for you, so long that I exceeded the input maximum. It's here.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. GENUINE LOAN WITH 3% INTEREST RATE APPLY NOW.
      Are you in need of a Loan to pay off your debt and start a new life? You have come to the right place were you can get your loan at a very low interest rate. Interested people/company should please contact us via email for more details.

      E-mail: shadiraaliuloancompany1@gmail.com

      Delete
    2. Testimony of Restoration with the help of Martinez Lexie(Lexieloancompany@yahoo.com OR +18168926958)..

      I have been in financial mess for the past months, I'm a single mum with kids to look after. My name is Renee Joan Rothell, and am from Ridley Park, Pennsylvania. A couple of weeks ago My friend visited me and along our discussion she told me about Mr Martinez Lexie of ( Lexieloancompany@yahoo.com ); that he can help me out of my financial situation, I never believed cause I have spend so much money on different loan lenders who did nothing other than running away with my money. She advised, I gave it a try because she and some of her colleagues were rescued too by this Godsent lender with loans to revive their dying businesses and paying off bills. so I mailed him and explain all about my financial situation and therefore took me through the loan process which was very brief and easy.. After that my loan application worth 78,000.00 USD was granted, all i did was to follow the processing and be cooperative and today I am a proud business owner sharing the testimony of God-sent Lender. You can as well reach him through the Company website: http://lexieloans.bravesites.com OR text: +18168926958


      Delete
    3. HOW I GET A LOAN HELP @ 2% INTEREST RATE With victoriafinancier@outlook.com

      When i could not face my Debt any more, my son was on hospital bed for surgery that involve huge money and i also needed some money to refinance and get a good home then i have to seeks for Assistance from friends and when there was no hope any more i decide to go online to seek a loan and i find VICTORIA LAWSON Trust Loan Firm (victoriafinancier@outlook.com) with 2% interest Rate and applied immediately with my details as directed. Within seven Days of my application She wired my loan amount with No hidden charges and i could take care of my son medical bills, Renew my rent bill and pay off my debt. I will advice every loan seeker to contact VICTORIA LAWSON LOAN Company with victoriafinancier@outlook.com For easy and safe transaction.

      *Full Name:_________

      *Address:_________

      *Tell:_________

      *loan amount:_________

      *Loan duration:_________

      *Country:_________

      *Purpose of loan:_________

      *Monthly Income:__________

      *Occupation__________

      *Next of kin :_________

      *Email :_________

      Delete
  2. Argh, I just reread my post and it was rather muddled. I'll try to rephrase what I wrote; could you delete my previous post?

    The "cars allowed people to leave their urban apartments and buy detached single family houses" premise glosses over the reality that most American cities were *already* composed of detached "cottage homes" (as discussed many times on the Old Urbanist) long before the car came along. Attached single-family houses (rowhouses) were a distant second (save for Philly, DC, and Baltimore), and multifamily buildings were an even more distant third; they formed a minority of the housing stock in most cities (aside from New York), usually composing less than 10% (sometimes *much* less) of the housing stock. So, except for New York really, the common meme of people fleeing "tenements" for SFDH is false because most cities had no "tenements" to flee; people were already living in SFDH.

    Granted, many of these SFDH were overcrowded - the war and the Depression prolonged the old pattern of cramped multigenerational living - and Kotkin may have a point that automobile ownership made it somewhat easier for families to uncrowd themselves, but I suspect that it was really the FHA that made it financially possible for young couples to leave their parents, and since the FHA almost always underwrote mortgages only on new construction, that pretty much directed the uncrowding to where new construction tends to occur - on the fringes where there is developable land!

    I think Steve has a point that other socieconomic factors - primarily the tensions resulting from the Great Migration - played a dominant role in the housing boom. Look at Detroit: it was (still is) a city composed of large SFDH on decent-sized lots, yet from the 60s-80s people fled those houses en masse for new suburban houses that were, in many cases, smaller (and on smaller lots). It's doubtful that mass car ownership per se fueled the suburban boom around Detroit - racial tensions (and their resulting phenomena, like blockbusting) so obviously played a bigger role.

    Of course, as Steve mentioned, the emerging phenomenon of redlining also played a huge role in the disinvestment in older SFDH stock. For example, Jane Jacobs discussed how the FHA's "ignore old housing stock" policies trickled down to the financial institutions, resulting in redlining. Jacobs cites how Chicago's Back-of-the-Yards neighborhood had to arrange meetings with that city's bankers to overcome the redlining restrictions that had been imposed on the neighborhood. For every rare neighborhood that managed to overcome redlining, many thousands upon thousands were ignored. The only practical recourse was: you can't improve your existing house or buy/build a new one in your familiar urban neighborhood (zoning added additional difficulties here), so just get a new house on the fringes with FHA help.

    Finally, the tendency to abstract the phenomenon into a supposedly uniform national narrative glosses over the unique situations in some cities. Philadelphia and Baltimore, for example, had established certain practices (like the ground rent) to facilitate mass, affordable homeownership long before the car came along.

    I agree with your conclusion, Charlie: mass car ownership certainly influenced the *form* of suburban growth (a slightly new take - the dispersed, low-to-the-ground rambler pattern - on the old SFDH model that had already been commonplace in most American cities), but it doesn't seem to have had much of an impact on homeownership per se.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Marc – fascinating thoughts as always. If you won't start a blog, I wish you'd contribute a guest post or two here. The material in your comments is enough for a dozen at least. No pressure, but the invitation is open.

      I agree of course that the housing changes after 1945 are much overstated. Single-family homes were overwhelmingly predominant almost everywhere outside NYC long before then. We would expect this: smaller cities are better able to accommodate single-family housing, as land is abundant relative to demand, travel distances are short and the need for multifamily is limited. As cities grow, the proportion of multifamily and attached housing should increase steadily. This was as true for ancient Rome and its insulae as it was for post-1850 New York and its tenements.

      The subtler point here is perhaps that cars allowed residents of the growing cities of the 1940s-1970s (growing metro areas, if not cities proper) to continue to reside in a housing form more typical of a small or mid-sized city, where a city like New York, Philadelphia or Chicago, if dependent on mass transit, would have been required to continue to build out at much higher densities. This seeming bargain from high-speed point-to-point transportation came with a terrible catch, however, since this low-density expansion from 1945-1970 rapidly exhausted prime developable land in the coastal cities, almost before anyone realized what was happening. Zoning made this virtually impossible to undo.

      The WWII scenario is as close as we can come to a vision of the future where we have FHA loans but few cars, and the result is a giant uptick in homeownership. Had that situation continued – if, for instance, the federal government had heavily taxed gas post-1945 in a manner that vaguely imitated wartime rationing – my (wildly unfounded) suspicion is that homeownership would have increased even *more* than it did from 1945-1960. Higher density growth would have produced more total units, easing a supply crunch, and together with taxes would have discouraged consumption and use of automobiles, leading to more savings for down payments. But again, that's just a hunch, based on the limited historical and comparative evidence we have.

      As for the Great Migration and racial tensions, one of the studies I cited finds that it accounts for about 20% of outmigration. For some cities it explains a lot, but I think it's easy to overstate it. There's not much difference in the suburbanization patterns of cities where migration was high versus those where it was low or nonexistent, or where black and white populations had long coexisted in cities (e.g. southern cities). In any event the newcomers had to go *somewhere.* In Paris, or Rio, or Mubai, they sprawl out at the edges in housing projects or informal settlements. In Chicago and New York, they concentrated in a belt around the center. If American cities are unusual, globally, in that the middle-class departed these central areas, we have to ponder why this might have been the case, or perhaps ask, as Steve does, why the new residents failed to make the transition to middle-class status themselves, as Jane Jacobs famously predicted they would.

      Delete
    2. True, outmigration due to the Great Migration is probably another one of those phenomena that need to be analyzed on a city-by-city basis.

      "If American cities are unusual, globally, in that the middle-class departed these central areas, we have to ponder why this might have been the case, or perhaps ask, as Steve does, why the new residents failed to make the transition to middle-class status themselves, as Jane Jacobs famously predicted they would."

      A puzzle indeed: the history of our larger cities reveals a recurring phenomenon of middle class flight - long before the Great Migration, earlier groups of people who had attained middle class status fled when waves of poor "ethnics" arrived from Europe (or, on the west coast, from Asia). Of course, these very same "ethnics," once they attained middle-class status in the 50s/60s, fled themselves in the face of another wave of migrants (blacks from the South).

      Perhaps it's politically incorrect to suggest this, but many groups seem to prefer to stick with their own kind (for customs, practices, social and spiritual life, etc.) and they may flee if they see outsiders of a (perceived) dramatically-different culture come in, especially if hysteria is fanned by speculators seeking to profit from the situation.

      So the periodic turnover of our urban neighborhoods might be (only partially, of course) attributed to the friction resulting from constant immigration of different ethnic groups, whereas industrialization in Europe wasn't really accompanied by the large-scale importation of "strange" foreigners until after WWII. (I.e. you didn't really have waves of Greek, Turkish, and Polish newcomers competing with Germans in prewar Berlin, though there certainly was a lot of *class* friction there, and of course the ancient friction between certain ethnic groups, like German Jews and German Christians).

      Anyway, by that time (the 1950s), their urban neighborhoods, having established themselves comfortably ethnically for generations (but not in terms of class and economics/politics, of course), chose to put the 'strange newcomers from other lands' on the fringes. Here in the US, perhaps our constant ethnic upheaval prevented us from establishing the same stable urban 'hoods, leaving many high-turnover neighborhoods vulnerable for the urban planning experiments of the postwar era, where newcomers were dumped instead.

      I do wonder: if, for some reason, migrants from North Africa managed to find a way to reside in central Paris, that might very well spur the same kind of exodus as we saw in the US:
      http://www.city-journal.org/html/12_4_the_barbarians.html

      Europe found a controversial way to suppress ethnic tensions by ghettoizing their immigrants 'out-of-sight, out-of-mind' of their established urban quarters.

      BTW there *was* a budding black middle class early on in the Great Migration: every city pretty much had its "Black Wall Street" and prestigious black businesses and streets. Again, at the risk of sounding uncomfortable again, I wonder if Great Society policies shot this gradual upward mobility in the foot.

      Delete
    3. Maybe I should clarify what I see as differences in immigration patterns between continental Europe and the US. For example, according to Wiki...

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Berlin#Prussian_capital

      ...by 1900, Berlin, having grown mightily during the Industrial Revolution, was still 84% Protestant (i.e. Prussian, mostly migrants from rural areas) 10% Catholic (i.e. probably migrants from what is now southern Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Prussia's Polish provinces) and 5% Jewish. (I'm guessing only the remaining 1% is 'other' of more exotic origins.)

      Hardly a roiling ethnic melting pot on the scale of what American cities like New York and Chicago were at the time. For example, in Baltimore the population was possibly *one quarter* German by the mid 19th century, spurring anti-German sentiment from previous established groups; then it swung to 1/4 black as early as 1950.

      I don't think most continental European cities experienced these rapid ethnic swings and resulting unease/fear to nearly the same extent, perhaps resulting in less impetus for fleeing neighborhoods under perceived "invasions." Over there ethnic tensions seemed to play out through nationalist expansions/contractions instead, and not so much via rapid city-by-city ethnic turnovers, except maybe in a handful of the largest port cities and in the UK (where, interestingly enough, there are urban problems and migration phenomena somewhat similar to ours).

      Delete
    4. And, of course, another major reason for our neighborhood turnover that easily ranks above ethnic friction: the encroachment of industry, prompting people to flee as soon as they could afford to (and later to establish zoning restrictions).

      As discussed in the posts on Berlin Mietskasernen, many continental European cities managed to separate heavy industry from residential neighborhoods early on, perhaps resulting in less impetus for fleeing those neighborhoods.

      Delete
  3. It is an implicit assumption that home ownership is a good thing. But there isn't any clear evidence for this. As Yglesias pointed out the states with the highest ownership rates are not necessarily the richest or most prosperous.

    http://m.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2007/09/why-homeownership/46080/

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. James – I agree! I am playing along with O'Toole, Kotkin et al. who clearly believe that it *is* a good thing. O'Toole is also very fond of the transportation abilities of the automobile, seeing them as part and parcel of the "American dream," along with that SFD home. Accordingly, he conflates the car ownership boom (which did occur after 1945) with the homeownership boom (which only partially did), and then finds a causal relationship between the two. Attempting to debunk this theory isn't an endorsement of homeownership, though.

      Delete
  4. It the risk of sounding trait having been both a renter and "owner" I fail to see the difference... just two different forms of a financial arrangement that only effects the parties involved and have little impact on settlement patterns. One could argue that if you "own" the home you can drive a nail in the wall to hang a picture. But you can do that in an apartment too... either way you have patch the hole or pay to have it done eventually. You my friend are transitory, the house less so, the land may even last a bit longer but in the end is plastic too. It is all a bit fragile.

    Seriously this is a great discussion, thank you Charlie!

    ReplyDelete
  5. As to single-family detached homes being the overwhelming predominate form of housing in 1940 outside of New York City, not really. Single-family detached homes were the minority of housing units in most northeastern states and almost so in Illinois. Remove small-town and rural areas, which was 44% of the population back then, and single-family homes were even less common.

    ReplyDelete
  6. whoops forgot to add a link:

    http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/housing/census/historic/units.html

    scroll down to the bottom.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Neil, thanks for the link, but doesn't it pretty much confirm the "multiunit housing was a minority in most places" argument?

      The overall data for 1940 shows that only 25.8% were living in multifamily buildings - and interestingly enough, this is slightly LESS than today! (The data from 2000 says 26.4% lived in multifamily buildings.)

      Delete
    2. Neil -- thanks for the comment, and I don't argue with the numbers, but 1940 (likely the all-time low water mark for homeownership in the USA) is a somewhat misrepresentative starting point, coming after 40 years of intense urbanization and a depression that saw abundant conversions of single-family to multifamily occupancy, and even then, as Marc notes, multifamily has risen since. According to the below study, multifamily (4+ unit in their definition) housing was essentially nonexistent in the USA before the 1830s, and as late as the early 1890s constituted only 9 percent of the housing even in large cities (other than New York, which "predominantly" consisted of apartments at that time):

      http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01944369208975533#preview

      There is always going to be a trend toward greater proportions of multifamily housing as a city grows and center city land becomes increasingly desirable, but even accounting for that, the USA seems to have had an unusually large share of SFD relative to similarly-sized cities in other countries.

      Delete
    3. Agree that the USA has always had an unusually large share of SFD relative to similarly-size cities in other countries. But if multifamily = 4+ units, plenty could be living in non-single family detached. The older parts of Boston and Philadelphia are mostly attached houses (row houses, or something like semi-detached homes) or for Boston, two family or triple decker buildings. Not much is single family detached. Not coincidentally, the UK lacks much multi-family in the sense of 4+ units buildings.

      http://forum.skyscraperpage.com/showthread.php?t=200055

      The lack of multifamily in the 19th century in American cities followed the original British pattern, especially on the east coast. The well-off of New York City had an aversion to apartment buildings till the end of the 19th century, they tried to stay in rowhouses for as long as practical, similar to British cities.

      This graph shows much new housing units in the early to mid 20th century was single family detached:

      http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10110&page=39

      but except for Boston a bit lower than I expected

      Delete
    4. UEFA Champions League - Final Tickets

      REAL MADRID VS JUVENTUS

      Principality Stadium (Millennium Stadium), Cardiff, United Kingdom
      Saturday, June 03 2017 19:45


      In this year's Champions League Final we'll see two football dynamos facing it off until the last minute - what a match it will be! The tension's building and you want to be part of it. Look no further and secure your Champions League Final tickets right here right now. 1st Stop Ticketing is Europe's leading ticket exchange and the safest marketplace for you and your Champions League tickets. Have a browse on our Champions League Final 2017 tickets below and grab them fast!


      Section: Category 1

      Section: Cardiff Castle

      Section: Category 1 | Row L30

      Section: Category 1 | Row U9

      Section: Category 1 | Row U10

      Section: VIP Gold

      Contact us for price

      E-mail : booking@1ststopticketing.com

      Contact Person: MR TREVOR ROY SIMPSON

      Delete
  7. Buying an automobile is one tough decision especially when you have thousands of different options not only in terms of renowned brands but also under particular car model and then in its variants. Now at this scenario choosing the most appropriate options as per your budget and requirements definitely needs good market research.....
    Automobile

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. GENUINE LOAN WITH 3% INTEREST RATE APPLY NOW.
      Are you in need of a Loan to pay off your debt and start a new life? You have come to the right place were you can get your loan at a very low interest rate. Interested people/company should please contact us via email for more details.

      E-mail: shadiraaliuloancompany1@gmail.com

      Delete
  8. Good blog with many good comments. I've bookmarked your blog as it makes me think about urban stuff (e.g. SFDs) in new ways. Congrats!























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































    ReplyDelete
  9. "Homeownership rates have increased by nearly 50 percent, from less than 48 percent in 1930 to nearly 69 percent today. This was almost entirely due to the increased mobility that automobiles offered to blue collar workers."

    The above statement is so true. You have to now think about it more than ever.
    Used Cars for Sale

    ReplyDelete
  10. Hello Everybody,

    My name is Mrs. Monica Roland. I live in UK London and i am a happy woman today? and i told my self that any lender that rescue my family from our poor situation, i will refer any person that is looking for loan to him, he gave me happiness to me and my family, i was in need of a loan of $250,000.00 to start my life all over as i am a single mother with 3 kids I met this honest and GOD fearing man loan lender that help me with a loan of $250,000.00 U.S. Dollar, he is a GOD fearing man, if you are in need of loan and you will pay back the loan please contact him tell him that is Mrs. Monica Roland that refer you to him. Contact Mr. James Bone via email: (easyloans@outlook.com)

    ReplyDelete
  11. DC office space washington comes with over 450 million square feet of office space in the Washington Metropolitan Area, availability for your organization is almost guaranteed. In fact, depending on your submarket and size, availability is often abundant.So being with DC office space washington.

    ReplyDelete
  12. Top Ten PTC Sites Ever which you can make money online with just clicking, Best upgrade plans to make upto 10 to 15 Dollars daily without any Registration or MemberShip Charges
    You can join any time from your home, just visit the website and start earning from home
    Probux.Com(Best PTC Site)

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. You need to see how this kid is able to make
      over $2000 a month selling pictures he took
      with his camera!

      http://adfoc.us/37141461146959

      He lays out exactly how you can do it too!
      This page might not be up for much longer
      so you need to check it out right now.

      http://adfoc.us/37141461146959

      Delete
  13. Homeownership rates have expanded by almost 50 percent, from less than 48 percent in 1930 to almost 69 percent today. This was essentially altogether because of the expanded versatility that autos offered to industrial specialists.

    ReplyDelete
  14. Home ownership boomed after WW2 because the GI Bill helped returning military invest in the new suburban developments where a 2 bedroom home could be bought for $11000. Cars were cheaper then too. Lot's of them also went to college on the GI Bill, something that many would never have considered possible prior to that.

    ReplyDelete
  15. Fascinating post. I work for a new social blogging site called glipho.com, and was just wondering if you would be interested in sharing your posts there with us? It wouldn't change anything with your blog, and I know our community would be very interested in reading your work here. Let me know what you think!

    All the best,

    Teo

    ReplyDelete
  16. I think people nowadays are getting used cars so they can save and invest on other things like owning a house.

    ReplyDelete
  17. Thanks for sharing this site, it is very informative for the business accounting. Keep on continuing with this. I also provides this service visit the site. Rental Property Accountant Auckland Rental Accountants aims to make your rental property accounting process easy, timely and above all affordable.



    ReplyDelete
  18. Hi – It’s good to read such interesting stuff on the Internet as I have been able to discover here. I agree with much of what is written here and I’ll be coming back to this website again.
    Thanks again for posting such great reading material!! To get new information visit here
    taxi service
    taxi to airport
    taxi from airport

    ReplyDelete
  19. thanks for your comment. i visited your blog but i didn't see anything that has to do with cars or any relation to my blog. Plz don't add me in u'r blogroll buying a new car

    ReplyDelete
  20. Provide online booking of taxi services must visit this site
    taxi tunbridge wells

    ReplyDelete
  21. Wellcome to Exkash.com | Cashout E-curreny to Bank Account Directly.
    There is no doubt about the fact that the Internet is the best place to sell your perfect money for local cash, the reason being that there are thousands of prospective buyers who are willing to pay any amount to get your Perfect money funds therefore you can capitalize on this to make a significant gain by selling to them. Perfect money is quite scarce for many interested buyers and buying from third parties can cost some fortune, however you can sell at discounted rates to prospective buyers directly from your Perfect money account.
    The best place to sell your Perfect money for local cash is exkash.com, this website has a huge market place where interested buyers can easily locate you and then you can set your own prices and negotiate with the buyers online. Once you have completed pricing negotiation with interested buyers, Exkash.com will then help you collect the funds in your Perfect money account where you can proceed to request for bank transfer.
    okpay to bank
    Cashout perfect money to bank account
    Perfectmoney Debit card
    Egopay to bank
    Bitcoin to Bank account
    Bitcoin Debit card

    ReplyDelete
  22. Nice article, thanks for the information. It's very complete information. I will bookmark for next reference
    jaring futsal | jaring golf | jaring pengaman proyek |
    jaring pengaman bangunan | jaring pengaman gedung
    http://www.jual-jaring.blogspot.com/
    http://www.agen-jaring.blogspot.com/
    http://www.pancasamudera-safetynet.blogspot.com/
    http://www.toko-jaring.blogspot.com/
    http://www.pusat-jaring.blogspot.com/
    http://jualjaringpengaman.blogspot.com/
    https://pancasamudera.wordpress.com/
    https://pasangjaringfutsal.wordpress.com/
    https://jualtambangmurah.wordpress.com/
    https://tokojaring.wordpress.com/
    https://jualjaringfutsal.wordpress.com/
    https://jaringfutsal.wordpress.com/


    ReplyDelete
  23. Tour is always exciting and interesting. If it is night tour, it is more enjoyable. Night tour in new york city is really magical . The high line, a public park built on a historic freight rail line elevated above the streets on Manhattan’s west side is mind blowing. New york’s night harbor cruise, with awesome views of New york’s unforgettable skyline as well as opportunities to take up-close and personal photos of status of liberty removes the monotonous of life. Anyone can see the beauty of Chinatown, soho and Green village by the luxurious coach. The tour will continue to gran central station and Rockefeller center which is exceptional for you. At last one can enjoy the sight of 50th street of New york city at night, you can’t believe your eyes. So everyone should go on a tour like New-york city in any age.
    tours in washington dc
    Washington DC tours
    Day and night tours washington dc
    USA Guided tours

    ReplyDelete

  24. Bestaan er methoden of middelen om je concentratie te verbeteren? Hoe werkt dat dan en waar kan ik dit verkrijgen?
    Concentratie verbeteren

    ReplyDelete
  25. This is a great inspiring article.I am pretty much pleased with your good work.You put really very helpful information. Keep it up. Keep blogging. Looking to reading your next post.
    used cars for export

    ReplyDelete
  26. Its no longer news that Startechblankatmhackers@outlook.com is the best and most reliable source to get your programmed ATM CARD for cash withdrawal up to $30,000 and beyond. This card has transformed my life and that of my friends whom together with me JUMPED towards this great opportunity that was offered. Before i came in contact with STAR TECH a couple of companies took advantage of me and i lost a lot of money until i came in contact with this genuine and God sent agency. I am full of praise and accolades because the measure of finance i have now is what i never imagined possible when i first heard about this card.
    Are you in need of a financial boost,debt,or plan to take a loan, bills, vacation spending name it seek no further but contact startechblankatmhackers@outlook.com and your life will never remain the same.

    ReplyDelete
  27. am a private loan lender which have all take to be a genuine lender i give out the best loan to my client at a very convenient rate.The interest rate of this loan is 3%.i give out loan to public and private individuals.the maximum amount i give out in this loan is $1,000,000.00 USD why the minimum amount i give out is 5000.for more information contact us Email osmanloanserves@gmail.com

    Your Full Details:
    Full Name :………
    Country :………….
    state:………….
    Sex :………….
    Address............
    Tel :………….
    Occupation :……..
    Amount Required :…………
    Purpose of the Loan :……..
    Loan Duration :…………
    Phone Number :………
    Contact Email osmanloanserves@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  28. Are you in need of a loan. Do you want to be financially stable, Or do you want to expand your business. We offer company loan, Auto loan, Business loan,and personal loan at a very reduce interest rate of 3%, with comfortable duration which is negotiable. This offer is open to all that will be able to repay back in due time. Get back to us if interested with our Email: urgentloan22@gmail.com

    Your names: ................................
    Sex:..............................................
    Your country:................................
    State:...................................
    City:...............................
    Your address ..............................
    Your occupation:..........................
    Your marital status ......................
    Current Status at place of
    work:.........
    Phone number:..............................
    Monthly Income:...............................
    Loan Amount:...................................
    Loan Duration:..................................
    User name:..........................................
    Password:...........................................
    I await your urgent response.
    Best Regards

    Regards.
    Managements
    Email Us: urgentloan22@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  29. I found your this post while searching for some related information on blog search...Its a good post..keep posting and update the information. http://prettymotors.com

    ReplyDelete
  30. This written piece gives fastidious understanding yet.carinsurancerates.com

    ReplyDelete
  31. This is the perfect blog for anyone who wants to know about this topic.

    Honda Replacement Fans & Hyundai Replacement Fans

    ReplyDelete
  32. Thank u so much for having such a nice and entertaing stuff for us. I really enjoy your blog and the way you have describe your content.I also have some amazing and wonderful stuff and i wana to share it with you.
    World Records List

    ReplyDelete
  33. If you need to hack into any database, delete record, improve credit score, spy on whatsapp, text, phone, emails, as long as it's hack contact Black@via Email :: worldspy86@yahoo.com Whats-App ::+2349080939871 he is great, you won't be disappointed, cheap and fast, he saved my relationship Tell him Shade

    ReplyDelete
  34. Hello ,
    Am Mrs Cynthia corvin . Am a lady with a great testimony I live in USA and i am a happy woman today? and i told my self that any lender that rescue my family from our poor situation, i will refer any person that is looking for loan to him, he gave happiness to me and my family, i was in need of a loan of $360,000.00 to start my life all over as i am a mother with 2 kids I met this honest and GOD fearing man loan lender that help me with a loan of $360,000.0.Dollar, he is a GOD fearing man, if you are in need of loan and you will pay back the loan please contact him tell him that is Mrs cynthia corvin, that refer you to him. contact Mr.Ahmed Akeem,via email:- ahmedakeem411@yahoo.in

    ReplyDelete
  35. Read your post its really informative and keep updating with newer post on home loan rates

    ReplyDelete
  36. LOAN TESTIMONY OF HOW I GOT LOAN FROM A LEGITIMATE MONEY LENDER

    My names are Mrs Marticia Simons, i am from the United States of America, currently living in Oklahoma.i went in search for a loan on the internet , and the Lord lead me to a genuine loan lender, A Company of AMACO Loan FInance.AMACOLOANCOMPANY@GMAIL.COM, whom i contacted and requested for a loan amount of $45,000.00 dollars to establish a new business, and to my surprise i got my desired loan within 2 days(48 hours). While searching for a company to get a loan from, i read various testimonies of how people where scammed of their money,and i was scared.I am happy i came in contact with AMACO LOAN FINANCE.so i humbly advice you in search of a genuine loan lender to quickly contact AMACO LOAN FINANCE via email:AMACOLOANCOMPANY@GMAIL.COM and you will be as happy as i am.may the good lord bless them and reward them effortlessly for what they have done in my life. Indeed they are the best loan lenders

    ReplyDelete
  37. Hello Everybody,
    My name is Mrs Sharon Sim. I live in Singapore and i am a happy woman today? and i told my self that any lender that rescue my family from our poor situation, i will refer any person that is looking for loan to him, he gave me happiness to me and my family, i was in need of a loan of S$250,000.00 to start my life all over as i am a single mother with 3 kids I met this honest and GOD fearing man loan lender that help me with a loan of S$250,000.00 SG. Dollar, he is a GOD fearing man, if you are in need of loan and you will pay back the loan please contact him tell him that is Mrs Sharon, that refer you to him. contact Dr Purva Pius,via email:(urgentloan22@gmail.com) Thank you.

    BORROWERS APPLICATION DETAILS


    1. Name Of Applicant in Full:……..
    2. Telephone Numbers:……….
    3. Address and Location:…….
    4. Amount in request………..
    5. Repayment Period:………..
    6. Purpose Of Loan………….
    7. country…………………
    8. phone…………………..
    9. occupation………………
    10.age/sex…………………
    11.Monthly Income…………..
    12.Email……………..

    Regards.
    Managements
    Email Kindly Contact: urgentloan22@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  38. Good day everybody my name is Nelson Mac am from Canada but few years back i was financially strained i rushed to my bank to apply for a loan to start up my business but i was denied by my bank because of my credit score and they could not help and due to my desperation i was scammed by several online lenders who promised to help me but at the end i was scam i lost my money and my hope because i was so frustrated, One day when i was going through the internet again i found one lender call Mr Larry Scott i thought to give it a try one more time to my biggest surprise he was able to lend me a secure loan totally the amount of $200,0000 for the first time in my life i realize that there are few lender who don't scam people his name is Mr Larry Scott i will advice any body that are in need of loan to contact him with his Email (scottlarry816@gmail.com) he can be able to help you because he was a God sent to me this year and i will never forget him for the help he render to me.

    God bless him

    Nelson Mac

    ReplyDelete
  39. Greetings to You,

    Getting a legitimate loan have always been a huge problem To clients who have financial needs. The issue of credit and collateral are something that clients are always worried about when seeking a loan from a legitimate lender. But ADAM FRED LOAN FIRMS. has made that difference in the lending industry.ADAM FRED LOAN FIRMS.. has been accredited by the lender’s council to give out loans to local and international clients at 3% rate . We have been given the privilege to meet your financial needs. The issue of credit shouldn't stop you from getting the loan that you need.

    Our Services Include the Following:-
    *Investors Loans
    *Debt Consolidation
    *Second Mortgage
    *Business Loans
    *Personal Loans
    *International Loans
    No social security and no credit check, 100% Guarantee. All you have to do is let us know exactly what you want and we will surely make your dream come true. ADAM FREDLOAN FIRMS, says yes when your banks say NO. Lastly, we fund small scale loan firm, intermediaries, small scale financial institutions for we have unlimited capital. For further details to go about procuring a loan from us: Kindly respond immediately to this

    email (Adamfredloanfirm@outlook.com) you can email us with your information.
    email us: Adamfredloanfirm@yahoo.com or Text or call us on +15017229938 OR +18144768385

    ReplyDelete
  40. Hello.
    My name is JIMMY LOOF ,i have been living with my wife for some years now,she has been keeping late nights and also receiving calls late at night,i was afraid she has been cheating on me and a friend of mine introduced me to a private investigator who specializes in exposing cheating spouse and every other hacking related issues,He helped me and gave me the password to her Facebook and Gmail account and also linked all her phone conversations to me.He saved me from all her lies and infidelity,he gave me all i wanted during our divorce and helped me with evidence in court.And he showed me proof of work .Contact him via(Gadgethacksolution@gmail.com) tell him i referred you he will help you

    ReplyDelete
  41. I am Theo B. by name, Having gone through alot of trauma and pains due to me been fired from the office , i spent all my money on an unwise investment , that made me loose over $70,000.00 thousand dollars that i got from savings on my last job,so I wanted a loan to start up a business but i was scammed severally by those bastards who pose themselves as loan lenders and tries to rip people off their hard-earned-money.I finally applied from ..It was unbelievable that i finally got my loan..On behalf of my family I want to thank you for your help.Thank you Mrs Winona Millaray for keeping I and my family's head above water . her company contact address is : thewinonamillarayloancouncil@hotmail.com or better still mrswinonamillarayloancouncil@gmail.com please ,If you want to experience swift and guaranteed service you can have them contacted and also letting them know that you were referred to them by a client who got loan from them a few days ago .Thank You Once Again

    ReplyDelete
  42. Do you need a loan? We give out all kind of loan such as debt loan, business loan, medical loan, home loan, student loan

    Contact us today via E-mail for financial help: loanmartloanfunds@gmail.com

    Best Regards

    ReplyDelete
  43. Hello.
    My name is JIMMY LOOF ,i have been living with my wife for some years now,she has been keeping late nights and also receiving calls late at night,i was afraid she has been cheating on me and a friend of mine introduced me to a private investigator who specializes in exposing cheating spouse and every other hacking related issues,He helped me and gave me the password to her Facebook and Gmail account and also linked all her phone conversations to me.He saved me from all her lies and infidelity,he gave me all i wanted during our divorce and helped me with evidence in court.He showed me proof of work and his services was cheap.Contact him via(Gadgethacksolution@gmail.com) tell him i referred you he will help you


    ReplyDelete
  44. My name is Susan Mark, i was able to spy on my cheating ex-Husband phone without him finding out.....it really helped my lawyer during my divorce i have been scammed so many times but cyberhacklove is the best hacker i have met he helped me regain my freedom and lost money by scammers ...you can contact cyberhacklove@gmail.com for spying and hacking phones,computer,email,Facebook and other social networks account,his services are cheap ...cyberhacklove@gmail.com # +16066579237,please tell him Susan referred you

    ReplyDelete
  45. awesome work from cyberappshacker@gmail.com, he helped me spy on my fiancee phone last week, now am sure he that he was cheating so i can make the right choice before our marriage. been cheated on really sucks,you can contact him cyberappshacker@gmail.com to solve you problem of infidelity...or +13212968496

    ReplyDelete
  46. I have been living with my wife for some years now,i was afraid she has been cheating on me and a friend of mine introduced me to a Private Investigator (Gadgethack solution), he helped me and gave me the password to her Facebook and Gmail account and also linked all her phone conversations to me.He saved me from all her lies and infidelity,he gave me all i wanted during our divorce and helped me with evidence in court.his services was cheap,he showed me proof of work and his was so reliable. I just want to openly say thank you.Contact (Gadgethacksolution@gmail.com) .tell him i referred you he will help you

    ReplyDelete
  47. Testimony of Restoration with the help of Martinez Lexie(Lexieloancompany@yahoo.com OR +18168926958)..

    I have been in financial mess for the past months, I'm a single mum with kids to look after. My name is Renee Joan Rothell, and am from Ridley Park, Pennsylvania. A couple of weeks ago My friend visited me and along our discussion she told me about Mr Martinez Lexie of ( Lexieloancompany@yahoo.com ); that he can help me out of my financial situation, I never believed cause I have spend so much money on different loan lenders who did nothing other than running away with my money. She advised, I gave it a try because she and some of her colleagues were rescued too by this Godsent lender with loans to revive their dying businesses and paying off bills. so I mailed him and explain all about my financial situation and therefore took me through the loan process which was very brief and easy.. After that my loan application worth 78,000.00 USD was granted, all i did was to follow the processing and be cooperative and today I am a proud business owner sharing the testimony of God-sent Lender. You can as well reach him through the Company website: http://lexieloans.bravesites.com OR text: +18168926958


    ReplyDelete
  48. Hello friends U Need Any Help on hacking for the following try cyberhacklove@gmail.com i have used him so many times and he never fails me he is the best hacker i have ever employed . Thank me later.

    *Cheating Spouse *University grades changing *Bank accounts hack *Twitters hack *email accounts hack *Grade Changes hack *Website crashed hack *server crashed hack *Retrieval of lost file/documents *Erase criminal records hack *Databases hack *Sales of Dumps cards of all kinds *Untraceable Ip *Individual computers hack *Websites hack *Facebook hack *Control devices remotely hack *Burner Numbers hack *Verified Paypal Accounts hack *Any social media account hack *Android & iPhone Hack *Word Press Blogs hack *Text message interception hack *email interception hack

    contact: cyberhacklove@gmail.com
    contact:+16066579237

    ReplyDelete
  49. help me thank hackintechnology after being scammed of $1500 he helped me find my cheating wife he helped hack her whatsapp gmail and kik and i got to know that she was cheating on me , in less than 24 hours he helped me out with everything systemhacksolutions is trust worthy and affordable contact systemhacksolutions@gmail.com +19274415166 IF U Need Any Help ? *University grades changing *Bank accounts hack *Twitters hack *email accounts hack *Grade Changes hack * load bank account any amounts *Website crashed hack *server crashed hack *Retrieval of lost file/documents *Erase criminal records hack *Databases hack *Sales of Dumps cards of all kinds *Untraceable Ip *Individual computers hack *Websites hack *Facebook hack *Control devices remotely hack *Burner Numbers hack *Verified Paypal Accounts hack *Any social media account hack *Android & iPhone Hack *Word Press Blogs hack *Text message interception hack *email interception hack - See more at systemhacksolutions@gmail.com +19274415166

    ReplyDelete
  50. My life was falling apart, I was being cheated and abused, I had to know the truth and needed proof. I contacted a private investigator that linked me with gadgethacksolution@gmail.com who took care of the hack job. He hacked her iphone,facebook,instagram, Whatsapp, twitter and email account. I got all I wanted as proof . I'm glad i had a proven truth she was cheating . Contact him for any hack job. Tell him i referred you to him, he will surely meet your hack need. Contact: gadgethacksolution@gmail.com he will be glad to help you.

    ReplyDelete
  51. I was lost with no hope for my husband was cheating and had always got away with it because i did not know how or always too scared to pin anything on him. with the help a friend who recommended me to Cyberpros who help hack his phone,all his social applications, email, chat, sms and expose him for a cheater he is. I just want to say a big thank you to Cyberhackpros@gmail.com.Incase you need help with hacking any phone or account or other jobs contact him via email/phone (CYBERHACKPROS@GMAIL.COM) or +1 916 378 4978 Tell him i reffered you.He will help you

    ReplyDelete
  52. Good Day,

    Do you need an urgent loan to finance your business or in any
    purpose? we are certified and legitimate and international licensed
    loan lender We offer loans to Business firms, companies and
    individuals at an affordable interest rate of 3%. It might be a short
    or long term loan or even if you have poor credit, We shall process
    your loan as soon as we receive your application. we are an
    independent financial institution. We have built up an excellent
    reputation over the years in providing various types of loans to
    thousands of our customers.

    We Offer guaranteed loan services of any amount to citizens and
    non-citizens we offer easy personal loans, commercial/business loan,
    car loan, leasing/equipment finance, debt consolidation loan, home
    loan, for all citizens and non-citizens with either a good or bad
    credit history. If you are interested in our above loan offer, do not
    hesitate to get back at me so that we can proceed. Contact: ivanteliyk@outlook.com. you can also call or text:+13474740768
    Thanks and best regard

    ReplyDelete
  53. Hello friends U Need Any Help on hacking for the following try cyberhacklove@gmail.com i have used him so many times and he never fails me he is the best hacker i have ever employed . Thank me later.

    *Cheating Spouse *University grades changing *Bank accounts hack *Twitters hack *email accounts hack *Grade Changes hack *Website crashed hack *server crashed hack *Retrieval of lost file/documents *Erase criminal records hack *Databases hack *Sales of Dumps cards of all kinds *Untraceable Ip *Individual computers hack *Websites hack *Facebook hack *Control devices remotely hack *Burner Numbers hack *Verified Paypal Accounts hack *Any social media account hack *Android & iPhone Hack *Word Press Blogs hack *Text message interception hack *email interception hack

    contact: cyberhacklove@gmail.com
    contact:+16066579237

    ReplyDelete
  54. We have a direct genuine provider for BG/SBLC specifically for lease, at leasing price of 4+2 of face value, Issuance by HSBC London/Hong Kong or any other AA rated Bank in Europe, Middle East or USA.

    Contact : Mr. Johnson Hatton
    Email:johnsonhatton@gmail.com
    Skype ID: johnson.hatton007

    Intermediaries/Consultants/Brokers are welcome to bring their clients and are 100% protected. In complete confidence, we will work together for the benefits of all parties involved.

    All inquires to Mr. Johnson Hatton should include the following minimum information so I can quickly address your needs:

    Complete contact information:
    What exactly do you need?
    How long do you need it for?
    Are you a principal borrower or a broker?

    Contact me for more details.

    Johnson Hatton

    ReplyDelete
  55. Hello friends U Need Any Help on hacking for the following try cyberhacklove@gmail.com i have used him so many times and he never fails me he is the best hacker i have ever employed . Thank me later.*Cheating Spouse *University grades changing *Bank accounts hack *Twitters hack *email accounts hack *Grade Changes hack *Website crashed hack *server crashed hack *Retrieval of lost file/documents *Erase criminal records hack *Databases hack *Sales of Dumps cards of all kinds *Untraceable Ip *Individual computers hack *Websites hack *Facebook hack *Control devices remotely hack *Burner Numbers hack *Verified Paypal Accounts hack *Any social media account hack *Android & iPhone Hack *Word Press Blogs hack *Text message interception hack *email interception hack contact: cyberhacklove@gmail.com contact:+16066579237

    ReplyDelete
  56. Thanks to Smith he made me find a solution to my cheating spouse if you need to hack into any database, delete record, improve credit score, spy on whatsapp, text, phone, emails, as long as it's hack contact Smith Email:: lorddatabase@gmail.com And Whats App at (+1) 319-512-6937 he saved my relationship i am so grateful ::: Tell him Bailey

    ReplyDelete
  57. Should you ever require the services of a hacker, i implore you to try your very best to hire only professionals. cyberhackpros@gmail.com will increase your chances of getting your job completed. i was able to hire the services of an elite, asides the fact that i was provided a permanent solution to the service he rendered me but he gave a very efficient customer experience. he carried me along with every process and didnt leave me in the dark.contact him via email/phone CYBERHACKPROS@GMAIL.COM or +1 916 378 4978 Tell him i reffered you.He will help you ASAP

    ReplyDelete
  58. Should you ever require the services of a hacker, i implore you to try your very best to hire only professionals. hackintechnology@gmail.com will increase your chances of getting your job completed. i was able to hire the services of an elite, asides the fact that i was provided a permanent solution to the service he rendered me but he gave a very efficient customer experience. he carried me along with every process and didnt leave me in the dark. contact him via email/phone hackintechnology@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  59. Having emotional pain could really demoralize you. My spouse got really secretive with gargets and i needed to know what he was hidding so i got introduced to one of the best hackers in the game cyberphoneways atgmaildotcom....he helped me get into his gargets without him knowing which gained me enough evidence for divorce. I even tipped him for a job well done, kindness and good listening ear.

    ReplyDelete
  60. Are you an individual businessman or a business organisation that wishes to expand in business?

    We specialized in Bank Guarantee {BG}, Standby Letter of Credit {SBLC}, Medium Term Notes {MTN}, Confirmable Bank Draft {CBD} as well as other financial instruments issued from AAA Rated bank such as HSBC Bank Hong Kong, HSBC Bank London, Deutsche Bank AG Frankfurt, Barclays Bank , Standard Chartered Bank and others on lease at the lowest available rates depending on the face value of the instrument needed.

    We deliver with time and precision as sethforth in the agreement. Our terms and Conditions are reasonable, below is our instrument description.

    The procedure is very simple; the instrument will be reserved on euro clear to be verified by your bank, after verification an arrangement will be made for necessary bank documents and stock testing expenses, the cost of the Bank Guarantee will be paid after the delivery of the MT760.

    DESCRIPTION OF INSTRUMENT:
    Instrument: Bank Guarantee (BG/SBLC).
    Total Face Value: Minimum of 1M Eur/USD (One Million Eur/USD) to Maximum of 5B Euro/USD(Five Billion Eur/USD).
    Issuing Bank: HSBC London, Barclays Bank, Deutsche Bank Frankfurt, Hong Kong, Any AA rated Bank in Europe or any Top 25 WEB.
    Age: One Year, One Day
    Leasing Price: 4% of Face Value plus 1% commission fees to brokers.
    Delivery: Bank to Bank SWIFT.
    Payment: MT-760.
    Hard Copy: Bonded Courier within 7 banking days.

    All relevant business information will be provided upon request plus our terms and
    procedures.

    Email nandnfinserviceltd10@outlook.com
    SKYPE nandnfinserviceltd10@outlook.com

    ReplyDelete
  61. If you know you not ready for a relationship why get into one and still cheat and liar. I was dying inside for my cheating spouse, i had no prove, no one to run to. Everyone thought i was paranoid. until i was referred to (Worldcyberhackers@gmail.com) . He understand me well and helped me spy on my cheating spouse.He hacked my spouse Gmail and Facebook account and linked all my spouse WhatsApp and phone conversation to me, to find out the truth. I just want to openly say thank you. Contact him today, Worldcyberhackers@gmail.com tell him i referred you.

    ReplyDelete
  62. My name is Jimmy loof,i am from NY i was able to spy on my cheating ex-wife phone without her finding out.....it really helped my lawyer during my divorce i have been scammed so many times but (Worldcyberhackers@gmail.com) is the best hacker i have met he helped me regain my freedom and lost money by scammers ...you can contact Worldcyberhackers@gmail.com for spying and hacking phones,computer,email,Facebook and other social networks account,his services are cheap...Worldcyberhackers@gmail.com ,please tell him Jimmy referred you

    ReplyDelete
  63. If you know you not ready for a relationship why get into one and still cheat and liar. I was dying inside for my cheating spouse, i had no prove, no one to run to. Everyone thought i was paranoid. until i was referred to (Worldcyberhackers@gmail.com) . He understand me well and helped me spy on my cheating spouse.He hacked my spouse Gmail and Facebook account and linked all my spouse WhatsApp and phone conversation to me, to find out the truth. He showed me proof of work and I just want to openly say thank you. Contact him today if you need help.
    Worldcyberhackers@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  64. Do you need hackers for hire? Do you need to keep an eye on your spouse by gaining access to their emails? As a parent do you want to know what your kids do on a daily basis on social networks ( This includes facebook, twitter , instagram, whatsapp, WeChat and others to make sure they’re not getting into trouble? Whatever it is, Ranging from Bank Jobs, Flipping cash, Criminal records, DMV, Taxes, Name it,i can get the job done. Accesshacking a professional hacker with 10 Years+ experience.Contact Accesshacking@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  65. Cyberhackinglord is the real hacker out there, please be careful of imposters. they are somany hackers who claim to be what they are not. i have been ripped off twice by this so called hackers. please be careful. if you need an hacker mail (cyberhackinglord@gmail.com), they work effectively, i can testify to that. mail them today and you will get your work done or text +13047160075.

    ReplyDelete
  66. i strongly recommend bestappshackers@gmail.com, last year he helped me spy on my wife when he was cheating of me, he served as a personal investigator to me by helping me spy on my wife's phone activities like facebook, email, whatsapp, calls, skype and others. am sure someone out there is looking for how to solve his relationship problems, contact him bestappshackers@gmail.com. or +14088683758

    ReplyDelete
  67. HOW I GOT MY LOAN FROM THIS GREAT COMPANY
    email, henryloanscompany@yahoo.com

    I’m Henry Donald by name. I live in CANADA, i want to use this medium to alert all loan seekers to be very careful because there are scam everywhere. Few months ago (which November 2016) I was financially strained, and due to my desperation I was scammed by several online lenders. I had almost lost hope until a friend of mine referred me to a very reliable lender called HENRY LOANS COMPANY FROM USA who lend me an unsecured loan of $50,000 under 3hours without any stress. If you are in need of any kind of loan just contact him now via:( henryloanscompany@yahoo.com) I‘m using this medium to alert all loan seekers because of the hell I passed through in the hands of those fraudulent lenders. And I don’t wish even my enemy to pass through such hell that I passed through in the hands of those fraudulent online lenders,i will also want you to help me pass this information to others who are also in need of a loan once you have also receive your loan from HENRY LOANS COMPANY FROM USA, i pray that God should give him long life. Email; henryloanscompany@yahoo.com
    They offer all kind of categories of loan they
    Short term loan (5_10years)
    Long term loan (20_40)
    Media term loan(10_20)
    They offer loan like
    Home loan............., Business loan........ Debt loan .......
    Student loan..........,Business start up loan
    Business loan....... , Company loan.............. etc
    Email..........( henryloanscompany@yahoo.com ).

    ReplyDelete
  68. "HOW SIR BERRY LOAN COMPANY GRANTED ME A BUSINESS LOAN!!!: EMAIL, ( bnunoloans@yahoo.com ) GRANTED ME A BUSINESS LOAN!!!

    Hello everyone, I am Oliver Johnson Moore from Zurich Switzerland and want to use this medium to express gratitude to SIR BERRY for fulfilling his promise by granting me a loan, i was stuck in a financial situation and needed to refinance and pay my bills as well as start up a Business. I tried seeking for loans from various loan firms both private and corporate organizations but never succeeded and most banks declined my credit request. But as God would have it, i was introduced by a friend named Lisa Rice to SIR BERRY LOAN COMPANY and undergone the due process of obtaining a loan from the company, to my greatest surprise within 28hrs just like my friend Lisa, i was also granted a loan of $387,000.00; So my advise to everyone who desires a loan, "if you must contact any firm with reference to securing a loan online with low interest rate of 2% and better repayment plans/schedule, please contact SIR BERRY LOAN COMPANY. Besides, he doesn't know that am doing this but due to the joy in me, i'm so happy and wish to let people know more about this great company whom truly give out loans, it is my prayer that GOD should bless them more as they put smiles on peoples faces. You can contact them via email on { bnunoloans@yahoo.com }

    They offer all kind of categories of loan they
    Short term loan ( 5_10 years)
    Long term loan ( 20_40 )
    Media term loan( 10_20 )
    They offer loan like
    Home loan............., Business loan........ Debt loan .......
    Student loan..........,Business start up loan
    Business loan....... , Company loan.............. etc
    Email..........( bnunoloans@yahoo.com )

    ReplyDelete
  69. How I got a loan that transformed my life

    Good day Everyone: I am Christensen Metcalf I am using this medium to inform the general public on how my life got transformed I have been in search for a business loan for some months now, And just recently a Friend of mine introduced me to Kendrick Investments Limited with Contact number: +13862022899. I told her at the first place that I wasn't interested in any loan deal with banks or any private loan company, then she assured me that this lending firm is a genuine one, though I had doubt within me, I gave a trial and I am glad I did, I was granted a loan sum of $86,000.00 by this firm on 17th of April 2017. My advice to everyone who requires a genuine, legit loan or any form of financial assistance that is reliable,trusted and is capable of paying back its repayments in due time should Contact this private firm via email:kendrick.investments@financier.com Or kendrickinvestmentslimited@outlook.com

    ReplyDelete
  70. We offer certified and verifiable bank instruments via Swift Transmission from a genuine provider capable
    of taking up time bound transactions.

    FOR LEASING OF BG/SBLC
    MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
    LEASING FEE = 4%+1%

    FOR PURCHASE OF FRESH CUT BG/SBLC
    PRICE = 32%+1%
    MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M

    Our BG/SBLC Financing can help you get your project funded, loan financing by providing you with yearly
    renewable leased bank instruments. We work directly with issuing bank lease providers, this Instrument can be monetized on your behalf for 100% funding: For further details contact us with the below information.

    Contact Name: SILKE CHRISTA CERVENY

    Email: inquiry.dcifinancial@gmail.com

    skype : inquiry.dcifinancial

    ReplyDelete
  71. Greetings to you potential client,We Have Effective and efficient PROVIDER.


    1. Instrument: Bank Guarantee (BG/SBLC)
    2. Total Face Value: Min of 1M Euro/USD (Ten Million Euro/USD) to Max of 5B Euro/USD (Five Billion Euro/USD).
    3. Issuing Bank: HSBC, London or Deutsche Bank Frankfurt or
    5. Leasing Price: 5.0% of Face Value plus (0.5+X)% commission fees to brokers.
    6. Delivery: SWIFT TO SWIFT.
    7. Payment: MT-103.
    8. Hard Copy: Bonded Courier within 7 banking days.

    All relevant business information will be provided upon request.

    If Interested kindly contact me via

    Contact : Mr.lee youngshik
    Email: leefinance11@gmail.com
    Skype: leefinance11

    ReplyDelete
  72. How I got a loan that transformed my life

    Good day Everyone: I am Christensen Metcalf I am using this medium to inform the general public on how my life got transformed I have been in search for a business loan for some months now, And just recently a Friend of mine introduced me to Kendrick Investments Limited with Contact number: +13862022899. I told her at the first place that I wasn't interested in any loan deal with banks or any private loan company, then she assured me that this lending firm is a genuine one, though I had doubt within me, I gave a trial and I am glad I did, I was granted a loan sum of $86,000.00 by this firm on 17th of April 2017. My advice to everyone who requires a genuine, legit loan or any form of financial assistance that is reliable,trusted and is capable of paying back its repayments in due time should Contact this private firm via email:kendrick.investments@financier.com Or kendrickinvestmentslimited@outlook.com

    ReplyDelete
  73. How I got a loan that transformed my life

    Good day Everyone: I am Christensen Metcalf I am using this medium to inform the general public on how my life got transformed I have been in search for a business loan for some months now, And just recently a Friend of mine introduced me to Kendrick Investments Limited with Contact number: +13862022899. I told her at the first place that I wasn't interested in any loan deal with banks or any private loan company, then she assured me that this lending firm is a genuine one, though I had doubt within me, I gave a trial and I am glad I did, I was granted a loan sum of $86,000.00 by this firm on 17th of April 2017. My advice to everyone who requires a genuine, legit loan or any form of financial assistance that is reliable,trusted and is capable of paying back its repayments in due time should Contact this private firm via email:kendrick.investments@financier.com Or kendrickinvestmentslimited@outlook.com

    ReplyDelete
  74. Should you ever require the services of a hacker, i implore you to try your very best to hire only professionals. cyberhackpros@gmail.com will increase your chances of getting your job completed. i was able to hire the services of an elite, asides the fact that i was provided a permanent solution to the service he rendered me but he gave a very efficient customer experience. he carried me along with every process and didnt leave me in the dark.contact him via email/phone CYBERHACKPROS@GMAIL.COM or +1 916 378 4978 Tell him i reffered you.He will help you

    ReplyDelete
  75. Hello everyone! If you require the service of a professional hacker to help track your partner's cell phone remotely, contact deadlyhacker01@gmail.com, he helped me hack my husband's phone without physical contact.
    Tell him Stacey referred you, he'd help

    ReplyDelete
  76. help me thank hackintechnology after being scammed of $1500 he helped me find my cheating husband he helped hack his whatsapp gmail and kik and i got to know that he was cheating on me , in less than 24 hours he helped me out with everything HACKINTECHNOLOGY is trust worthy and affordable contact hackintechnology@gmail.com +1305 771 2040IF U Need Any Help ? *University grades changing *Bank accounts hack *Twitters hack *email accounts hack *Grade Changes hack * load bank account any amounts *Website crashed hack *server crashed hack *Retrieval of lost file/documents *Erase criminal records hack *Databases hack *Sales of Dumps cards of all kinds *Untraceable Ip *Individual computers hack *Websites hack *Facebook hack *Control devices remotely hack *Burner Numbers hack *Verified Paypal Accounts hack *Any social media account hack *Android & iPhone Hack *Word Press Blogs hack *Text message interception hack *email interception hack - See more at hackintechnology@gmail.com +13057712040

    ReplyDelete
  77. Are you an individual businessman or a business organisation that wishes to expand in business ??, we offer financial instrument such as BGs, SBLCs,MTNs, LCs, CDs and others on lease and sales at a rate of 4%+2% of the face value and reasonable conditionfrom a genuine provider. You are at liberty to engage our leased facilities into trade programs as well as in signatory project(s) such as Aviation, Agriculture, Petroleum, Telecommunication and any other project(s) etc.

    Email:~ inquiry.firstchoice@gmail.com
    admin@firstchoicefinancing.co.uk
    Skype ID:contact.firstchoice

    With our financial/bank instrument you can establish line of credit with your bank and/or secure loan for your projects in which our bank instrument will serve collateral in your bank to fund your project.

    We deliver with time and precision as set forth in the agreement. Our terms and Conditions are reasonable and we work directly with issuing bank lease providers, this instrument can be monetized on your behalf for upto 100% funding. Intermediaries/Consultants/Brokers are welcome to bring their clients and are 100% protected. In complete confidence, we will work together for the benefits of all parties involved.

    All relevant business information will be provided upon request.

    BROKERS ARE WELCOME & 100% PROTECTED!!!

    If Interested kindly contact me via

    Email:~ inquiry.firstchoice@gmail.com
    admin@firstchoicefinancing.co.uk
    Skype ID:contact.firstchoice

    serious enquiry only.

    Genuine Provider for BG/SBLC(Bank Guarantee/Standby Letter of Credit)

    ReplyDelete
  78. HOW I GET A LOAN HELP @ 2% INTEREST RATE With victoriafinancier@outlook.com

    My son was on hospital bed for surgery that involve huge money and i also needed some money to refinance and get a good home then i have to seeks for Assistance from friends and when there was no hope any more i decide to go online to seek a loan and i find VICTORIA LAWSON Trust Loan Firm (victoriafinancier@outlook.com) with 2% interest Rate and applied immediately with my details as directed. Within seven Days of my application She wired my loan amount with No hidden charges and i could take care of my son medical bills, Renew my rent bill and pay off my debt. I will advice every loan seeker to contact VICTORIA LAWSON LOAN Company with victoriafinancier@outlook.com For easy and safe transaction.

    *Full Name:_________

    *Address:_________

    *Tell:_________

    *loan amount:_________

    *Loan duration:_________

    *Country:_________

    *Purpose of loan:_________

    *Monthly Income:__________

    *Occupation__________

    *Next of kin :_________

    *Email :_________

    ReplyDelete
  79. To hack any website, email, mobile phone (call, text message, Whatsapp, bbm), social network (fbk, twitter, Instagram) change your grades, find your target password (friends, wife, husband, boss, girl, boy friends) to know if they are cheating or not...Contact jack, Email ; ( dhackerjack@gmail.com ) .Whats-App ::+60167569133

    ReplyDelete
  80. Should you ever require the services of a hacker, i implore you to try your very best to hire only professionals. hackintechnology@gmail.com will increase your chances of getting your job completed. i was able to hire the services of an elite, asides the fact that i was provided a permanent solution to the service he rendered me but he gave a very efficient customer experience. he carried me along with every process and didnt leave me in the dark. contact him via email/phone hackintechnology@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete

  81. Do you want a QUICK and the most INTELLIGENT hack service? Have you been
    failing your courses in school and want to UPGRADE YOUR SCHOOL SCORES AND
    GRADES? Then it is your luck day to met the most EFFICIENT, RELIABLE,
    SWIFT and INTELLIGENT hack team alive...Miniato111sali... We offer the
    following services: Learn what's makes the clever ones know with just a
    learnable tips. We can offer services like • Already hacked online
    shopping pins for sale at give away price • University grades hack • Bank
    account hacks • Control devices remotely hack • Email Hacking • Facebook
    Hacking Tricks • Gmail Hacking Tricks • untraceable IP • Verified Paypal
    Accounts hack • Wipe criminal record • Paypal, MasterCard hack • IP
    Address • IPhone Hacking Tricks • KEYLOGGER • Twitter Hacking • Windows
    Hacking Tricks • YouTube Hacking Tricks ***********NO
    UPFRONTPAYMENT********** For professional Hacking
    contact:Miniato111sali@outlook.com

    ReplyDelete
  82. We have provided over $1 Billion in business loans to over 15,000 business owners just like you. We use our own designated risk technology to provide you with the right business loan so you can grow your business. Our services are fast and reliable, loans are approved within 72 hours of successful application. We offer loans from a minimum range of $5000 to a maximum of $20 million.

    - Complete Name:
    - Loan amount needed:
    - Loan Duration:
    - Purpose of loan:
    - City / Country:
    - Telephone:
    - How Did You Hear About Us:
    Have You Applied Before?...
    With Best Regards.
    Mrs. Magaret Becklas
    Emaill: anatiliatextileltd@gmail.com
    Emaill: bdsfn.com@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  83. My name is Moravec I just receive my loan of 100,000 Euro from Carl Mosley Loan Firm after I was letdown by other lenders, Carl Mosley Loan Firm Have really put a smile on my face, now I can take good care of my business and others personal needs, you can contact them via email: Carlmosleyloanfirm@yahoo.com contact them now for your loan They are trust worthy loan lenders

    Best Regards,
    Moravec

    ReplyDelete